The Medieval Period of Indian history ( or The Medieval History of India ) is a time period between Ancient history and Modern history i.e. from the 6th century to the 18th century.
The Medieval period started at the end of ancient age in 550 AD and it continued till the 18th century when the Mughal empire had broken. During the medieval period, various dynasties ruled over India namely;
- THE CHOLAS
- THE MUGHALS
- THE PALA DYNASTY OF EASTERN INDIA
- THE CHALUKAYAS
- THE PALLAVAS, and
- THE DELHI SULTANATE
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The Pallava Dynasty
Pallava was a powerful dynasty of Andhra Pradesh in Indian medieval history. At the end of 500 AD, they ruled from its capital placed Pallavapuri, for distribution of natural power they moved it to Kanchipuram and established a more strong empire by the founder of Pallava dynasty Simha Vishnu.
After that, his son Mahendravarman succeeded. Mahendravarman was succeeded by his son Narsimhavarman in 630 AD. He entirely burnt the capital city of Pulakesi in order to take revenge for his father.
The dynasty was not at peak position under the king ever, but the successors controlled to safeguard the kingdom until Cholas took their charge in the ninth century.
The Pala Dynasty
It was founded by Gopala in 750 AD. He ruled from 750-770 AD. He was the son of Vapyata. At the time of his Death, Pala kingdom included Bengal and most of the Bihar. He was considered as the First Buddhist king of Bengal.
Dharmapala (Reign:770-810 AD) was the son and successor of Gopala. He was a pious Buddhist. Devapala (Reign:810-850 AD) son of Dharmapala and Rannadevi. Gopala’s empire was greatly expanded by his son Dharmapala and his grandson Devapala.
Mahipala I ascended the throne in 988 AD. He recovered northern and eastern Bengal within three years. He also took Bihar.
Ramapala – the last strong pala king. After gaining control of Varendra, Ramapala tried to revive the Pala empire with limited success.
Madanapala (Reign:-1144-1162 AD), After Madanapala, Sena Dynasty replaced the Palas.
The Chola Dynasty
The reign of Cholas began in the 9th century and this rule stretched over 500 years till the 13th century. The founder of the Chola empire was Vijayalaya.
The rule of the Chola dynasty rose to prominence in 850 when Vijayalaya defeated the Pallavas and took over the Tanjore from them. Due to the conflict between Pallavas and Pandyas, it became easy for them to establish the Chola Empire.
Vijayalaya made Tanjore his capital and later on, he was succeeded by his son Aditya-I. Aditya-I defeated Pallava king Aprajita and also Parantaka Viranarayna, the Kongu ruler. He defeated all the Pallavas ruler.
After that next ruler, Rajaraja Chola with the help of his son Rajendra Chola conquered the Madras Presidency.
At last, the Kakatiyas and Hoyasalas partitioned among themselves the territory of the Chola empire and the Chola empire ceased to exist forever.
The Chalukyas dynasty ruled large parts of India between the sixth and twelfth centuries.
The founder of the western Chalukya Dynasty was Pulakesin I who has established the dynasty at the capital of Badami after that his son Pulakesin II was succeeded.
Pulakesin II was in power and reigned for 609 to 642 AD. The capital of Badami was destroyed by the Pallavas dynasty in the seventh century.
The eastern Chalukya dynasties were in power from the capital city of Vengi. The Dynasty stayed in Power till 1189 AD.
The Delhi Sultanate
A number of Delhi sultanates in power from 1210 AD and 1526 AD. It was founded after Mohammad Ghori established the Delhi Sultanate by defeating Prithviraj Singh Chauhan.
After the death of Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak became himself the sultan of Delhi and created the slave Dynasty, it came to an end in 1192 AD. The sultanate of Delhi was in Regular Change as five dynasties rose and fell;
- SLAVE DYNASTY (1206 AD TO 1290 AD)
- KHALJI DYNASTY (1290 AD TO 1320 AD)
- TUGHLAQ DYNASTY (1320 AD TO 1413 AD)
- SAYYID DYNASTY (1414 AD TO 1451 AD) and
- LODI DYNASTY (1451 AD TO 1526 AD)
The Mughal Empire
The Mughal empire was founded by Babur in 1526 when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the first battle Panipat.
After Babur, his son Humayun ruled the Mughal empire from 1530 AD to 1556 AD. Humayun fought two Battles with Sher Shah Suri and was ultimately defeated. Humayun died in 1556 AD falling from the stairs of his Library building.
Humayun’s officer Bairam Khan crowned the 13-year-old Akbar as the third Mughal Emperor. Akbar conquered Chittor, Ranthambore, Gujrat, Mewar, Kashmir, Sindh and Asirgarh. He introduced Mansabdari system. His Navaratnas were Todar Mal, Abdul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, RaJa Maan Singh and Fakir Aziao -Din.
After him, Jhangir (Reign: AD 1605-1627) executed the fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev. Jahangir’s son, Shah Jahan (Reign: AD 1628 – 1658) reign was considered as the golden reign of the Mughal Empire. He built the Taj Mahal in Agra. Shah Jahan’s son Aurangzeb (Reign: AD 1658-1707) was the last seriously notable Mughal Emperor.
Message – We are preparing a complete guide on Indian History, above is a sum-up of the whole Indian medieval history. Go through each dynasty for complete information
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